Neuropsychological Education in Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorders (CDs) is a prevalent condition (between 5% and 10%). It is common for symptoms to manifest for many years, sometimes continuing into adulthood, such as severe personality disorders, including alcohol and drug abuse and criminal behavior. Prevalence has shown to have increased considerably over the second half of the twentieth century (Harrison, Cowen, Burns, & Fazel, 2018). The historical cultural neuropsychology allows us to think and work in a new, different way, which has shown itself to be very promising, with good results (Quintino-Aires, 2012, 2016a, 2020a). This article presents the work of our team in neuropsychological education, guided by neuropsychological rehabilitation proposed by Luria (1963, 1966b, 1970) with these children and young people. It also refers the way we use the theory of the formation of mental actions step-by-step by P. Gal’perin, both in structuring the therapeutic session with the child or adolescent ODD and CD, as well as in the pedagogical work with the parents. The case A.B., 10-year-old boy, adopted at the age of five, helps to illustrate the way these cases are usually followed in child psychiatry and clinical psychology, and what may be different within the approach of historical cultural neuropsychology. A brief review of neuroscience research is presented, particularly in neuroimaging studies, so that we can better integrate the clinical work with the boy A.B. The results of our clinical practice suggest that this may be a good working approach for the treatment of ODD and CD. More systematized and extended studies are needed with a greater number of clients.